The Presentation of Macronutrients

The Distorted Perception of Food: Macronutrients

Once there was a time when humans ate whatever was necessary to live. Eventually, the elite were able to choose the more glamorous foods, and the common folk were welcome to moderate quantities of the less exciting options. Now most citizens of industrialized economies have plenty of readily available food choices. Abiding by enough scientific and political influence, business have chosen to present food on the foundation of the three macronutrients which humans need to function: Fats, Carbohydrates, and Proteins.

Fats

Fats have the most fascinating history within the evolution of the food industry. With a raise in the occurrence of obesity, the FDA decided to inform people of the dangers of eating too much “fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol” with the “healthy eating” campaign of 1980. With the substantial rise in obesity rates, the FDA continued to update guidelines up to and beyond the food pyramid of 1992, and signaling the danger of fat has persisted to this day. 2% milk replaced whole milk, and if skim milk didn’t taste so ridiculously bad, it probably would have replaced 2% milk. Margarine nearly replaced butter, and the movement for lower quantities of processed vegetable oil to replace natural fats reached nearly all available options.

Excessive quantities of modified food products including modified (hydrogenated, heated, and/or refined) oils, and fat substitutes are detrimental to the human body. Unfortunately, proof is still pending since they haven’t been readily available during much of the process of civilized evolution. Contrary to popular government and marketing promotions, the ingestion of healthy fats including unprocessed saturated fats (coconut oil) are not a primary cause of obesity or unhealthy cholesterol (high LDL) levels in the human body. After practicing the ketogenic diet for 2 years using coconut as my primary source of caloric intake, blood tests confirmed healthy cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and body fat levels during or after the process. The toxic overload of modified food products, especially sugar/fructose loaded options, directly relates to the internal stress markers of the human body which correlate with high LDL levels, metabolic inconsistencies, and the initiation/maintenance of fat storage.

Proteins

Proteins are the glorified trophy of macronutrients from ancient times as well as present culture. Hunters returning with their prey would receive an immense amount of praise from their village. The entire fish, animal, or bird would be prepared to fulfill the needs of the village, and every aspect of the fish, animal, or bird was useful and respected. Rather than isolating the most lean and tender region of meat, the food source was balanced with fat, macronutrients, fiber, and also protein. Today the staple food of any plate is the premium cut of lean meat.

Meat was the trophy for generations and was consistently expensive and/or difficult to attain. Meat became the goal, and food industries readily created the protein idol within that goal. Certain grains and beans had enough protein to be marketed as an inexpensive meat replacement. Fat could be removed from dairy leaving the ever-important protein. The egg yolk could be overlooked, or a half-gallon of pure egg whites could be purchased from the local grocery. Protein shakes loaded with whey protein and soy proteins, fitness bars, and the most recent PB2 evolution have glorified protein as the fitness macronutrient of choice. Based on advertisement proclamations, ingesting large amounts of protein results in the body of an attractive model: a model with a low body fat percentage, a perfect tan, and a stellar muscular physique.

Carbohydrates

Although fruits have evolved to become the idealistic size and shape to initiate human salivation, it is easier to cultivate large quantities of sugar from other sources. Sugar Cane is the easiest for large-scale farming, and refining the sugar is also easiest from that source. There aren’t many valuable nutrients to strip from sugar cane, but it might as well be the pure white color the human eye desires. From here the sugar can simply be mixed with ingredients including emulsifiers, stabilizers, and/or flour to make an ideal mass of sweetness. The motivation to purchase comes from the additional beauty of food coloring, texturing, packaging, and marketing. The candy and cake aren’t eaten all the time; only on special occasions, like daily treats of pleasure after eating a healthy meal.

Fruit and sugar are not the only carbohydrate sources. Whole grains, like corn, are often fully processed before ingesting. Excessive levels of heat are used to condition the product for processing. Chemical solvents are used to extract the oils from the grain. (The oil is then neutralized, deodorized, and bleached to yield vegetable oil.) Excessive levels of heat are again used to evaporate the solvent from the grain. The remaining grain can then be degerminated and ‘polished’ before it is milled into the wonderful corn flour it was meant to be. This process removes the pericarp and tip cap which are the outer fibrous coverings of the kernel. The internal germ containing vitamins, enzymes, and minerals necessary for seed growth is also removed. All relevant sources of vitamins, minerals, and fiber must be removed for the sake of a longer shelf life and business profitability.

The current movement influencing personal choice

The current ‘choose my plate’ government promotion continues the idiocracy of the American diet. The only slightly positive remark I have regarding this image is the recommendation for a large portion of the plate to contain vegetables. However, based on the chronic over satiation of corn and deep-fried potatoes which conveniently fulfill the vegetable intake recommendations, I do not foresee health improvements in the near future. As schools promote this choose my plate model, a visually assumed macronutrient ratio of close to 65% carbohydrates, 30% protein, and 5% fat remains the common perception. Fat is still demonized, and the dairy industry is still cashing in on excessive lobbying bias to define public policy.

Over time, processed food tastes better, and unmodified foods look, smell, and taste worse. Unpackaged foods are uncomfortable and messy. Unprepared foods take too long to make and don’t last long enough before and after cooking. The carbohydrate overload readily fuels the physical and psychological dependence on easy access foods. More is purchased, more is eaten, and businesses attain higher profit margins. Sweeter tasting foods continue to replace the previous trend. Quick fix sugar replacements pretend to solve the problem of excessive caloric intake. The processed foods become more different, and the processed foods distort natural human perception beyond repair.

That being said, the population has experienced some progress in a few isolated areas. Blatantly toxic choices are frowned upon. Most agree that eating an entire cake is unhealthy since the trend will likely be linked to obesity and diabetes. Most agree that smoking is unhealthy since the trend will likely lead to lung cancer, peripheral artery disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder to name a few. Unfortunately, most unhealthy choices remain normalized. Consistently eating candy from the vending machines in schools is OK because the lunch meal almost follows the choose my plate guidelines. Consistently drinking excess alcohol at a local bar is OK because a higher blood alcohol levels always support positive human interaction. Hopefully my logic for the last half of the paragraph was interpreted as sarcastic.

I hope that one day food will be perceived as a necessary component supporting the physiology of the human body. The logic of eating foods which are not processed will simply make more sense than the constant overload of modified junk food. Foods won’t be obsessively categorized into good/bad macronutrient categories (Fat Free! Sugar Free! High Protein!). The average human body will regain an ability to accurately monitor levels of hunger, and a balanced plate of natural foods will allow hunger to be satisfied until the next meal.

Agree or Disagree?

Sleep Training

I recently posted an article comparing the CIO (Cry It Out) group supporters to the Co-Sleeping supporters, and briefly discussed our daughter’s experience with both sleep plans. We are now 4 weeks into implementing a successful CIO bedtime and nap-time routine for our 11-month-old daughter. I have not seen a detailed example of how CIO plans are implemented, so I have decided to share the specifics of our plan.

First, I would like to clarify that my previous article was not well accepted nor appreciated in some groups. Several individuals firmly believe that subjecting a child to CIO is inadequate and cruel parenting. Therefore, if you believe children should not be subjected to CIO, then I recommend that you do NOT read this article. If you and your partner are not ready to commit to a sleep plan, it would not be a good idea to implement a sleep plan. I apologize to those that I have sickened. I do not claim to be a parenting expert, and I believe that every parent should consider researching multiple resources before making substantial child raising decisions.

Before we begin, I must clarify the following: successful sleep training methods require schedules, routines, and consistency. I strongly recommend implementing the following suggestions before starting sleep training. Under each point I have noted some of the specifics of the schedule we had before attempting sleep training.

Sleep and Feeding Schedule

  1. Set a sleep schedule with at least a 3-hour window between the last nap and bed time.

From the age of 9-10 months, we had set a somewhat consistent nap schedule for our daughter. Her first nap started about 2.5 hours after waking in the morning and 3 hours of waking from her second nap. This usually left about 4 hours until bed time.

There were times when the nap was pushed back too late. If she wouldn’t fall asleep for the second nap we would then take her on a car ride to help her fall asleep, and that was often too late in the afternoon after the failed nap attempt. A child certainly needs sleep; however, we should have kept that 3-hour window between the last nap and bed time even if she was exhausted. The night-time sleep plan trumps the nap plans.

  1. Set consistent sleep routines with the night sleep routine lasting about 10 minutes.

From the age of 9-10 months we also started implementing a sleep routine. We would read to her before each nap and bed time for about 5 minutes. The bed time routine also included a diaper change and putting her in her pajamas.

The night-time routine should have lasted closer to 10 minutes, and we should have included a more detailed, consistent, and step-wise routine. This will be further discussed in the ‘Re-Set’ plan below.

  1. Set a consistent feeding schedule, including a dream feeding if necessary.

We did not put this into practice until we started the CIO plan at the age of 10 months. We used the bottle as a sleep aid, and this was a mistake. Looking back I have realized that even if the initial CIO method would have worked at the 6 or 9-month attempts, it would not have lasted through the night. This is probably the case even if we would have implemented a well-timed dream feeding because she was dependent on the bottle as her soothing requirement. If you want to implement a sleep plan, the bottle should not be used as a soothing tool.

The last feeding must be at least 15 minutes before the start of the night-time sleep routine. If feedings are necessary during the night, a dream feeding should be scheduled before the child would wake for the feeding. At 10 months we decided a dream feeding was not necessary since her night feeding usually resulted in a skipped morning feeding.

Additional Considerations

There are situations when such schedule synchronization is difficult to implement. If all of these variables are perfectly set, your child is probably very close to being perfectly sleep trained anyway. Most parents who are researching sleep training are facing exhausting and overwhelming inconsistencies which need to be corrected. That is exactly where we were, and we started the successful sleep training from a fairly unstable starting point. Our daughter did not have any self-soothing skills before our 10-month sleep training attempt. Furthermore, her inconsistent sleep from the age of 4-10 months left her exhausted for too much of the day. This scattered her eating schedule, and the cyclic nature of inconsistencies continued. We didn’t realize how exhausted she was until about 5 days into our successful sleep training attempt.

(Re)Set the Sleep Stage

  1. The Child Must Sleep in a Crib, and That Crib Is the Only Sleep Option.

Allowing a child over 6 months old to fall asleep while feeding, being held, riding in a car, or co-sleeping are not helpful options when attempting to acclimate a child to sleeping in a crib. If the child is used to those options, the challenges of sleep training increase exponentially. The crib must be the only option. By the age of 10 months we had allowed alternative sleep options much too frequently, and she knew that crying in her crib would eventually result in being removed from her crib.

Before the official sleep training attempt began, she was required to sleep in the crib for 4 nights. She hated it, and it didn’t matter if we were in the room or not. I decided to lay with her in the crib for an hour, and then sleep next to her on the floor for the entire night. Your methods are up to you, but before a sleep training attempt it must be accepted by all parties that sleeping in the crib is the only option.

  1. Optimize the Sleep Environment

For us, the two final steps for the optimal sleep environment included adding about 8 more pacifiers around the crib and using a white noise machine. The room should be completely dark and a comfortable temperature.

  1. Continue or start a schedule.

If you haven’t already, do your best to set the sleeping and eating schedules. The more defined the schedules are, the easier the sleep training will be. As these schedules are set all milk feedings should be at least 15 minutes from any sleep attempt.

For bed time, the consensus is a 7:00 – 8:30 time window. During our four days of preparation we aimed for a 7:30 p.m. sleep time. This would be +/- 15 minutes depending on when she woke up from her last nap. In the morning we took her out of the crib no earlier than 6:00, but if she was sleeping we let her sleep until 7:30 (that never happened). The first nap would start 2.5 hours after she woke up in the morning. The second nap would start 3 hours after she woke up from the first. The second nap would not continue past 4:30 p.m. We had to wake her up twice on the occasions when she fought the second nap for too long.

Ideally, the previously mentioned sleeping and eating schedules as well as not using the milk for soothing purposes would also be integrated as much as possible. The better these foundations are set; the easier sleep training will be.

  1. Optimize a Sleep Routine.

Set the sleep routine of your choice. The final feeding should start at least 20-30 minutes before the child is set in the crib for the night. After the feeding, allow the child to sit or be held upright for about 5-10 minutes, then proceed to the sleep routine. This part of the routine should last about 10 minutes. Our routine included a diaper change, a coconut/lavender oil massage, dressing her in her pajamas, two books (4-5 mins), clicking on the sound machine, and then laying her in her crib. As you are prepping for the sleep training, you could be crazy and sleep in the crib as I did, you could stand by the crib, and/or you could stand across the room. Whatever works! The goal is as little crying as possible with as little contact as possible. For naps we included a diaper change and one book.

Sleep Training

If steps 1-7 are going well, sleep training might be as easy as all of the CIO and Ferber advocates proclaim. Our sleep training started by implementing the previous 7 steps within the narrow time window of only four days. Since we were consistently implementing each step, and we were confident that our plan would work. The small 4-day window of preparation as well as the previously failed attempts (intermittent re-enforcement) did not make our sleep training path easy. However, it worked.

  1. Start with only night-time sleep training.

There isn’t much to say about the sleep training once steps 1-7 are set in place. At 10 months she no longer needed a dream feeding. After the night-time routine, we left the room for the night. For the first week she averaged 25 minutes of crying, for the second week she averaged 10 minutes, and for the third she averaged 5 minutes before falling asleep. For the first two weeks we only implemented sleep training at night. Since naps are more challenging with less of a physiological sleep synchronization, we remained next to her crib until she fell asleep for naps.

As our daughter became more comfortable with the sleep training routine, she also had some interesting behavioral changes. After the feeding we would walk into her room, and she knew that it was sleep time. For some reason she always accepted diaper changes, but after the first week she started to fight the diaper change. She knew that it was bed time, and she knew that she would be stuck going to sleep once it happened. After the diaper change she usually calmed down more during the massage and dressing in her pjs. Then, during the book reading she was very calm. The battle shifted from fighting sleep in the crib to making a short plea within the bedtime routine.

  1. Continue to nap sleep train if necessary.

After the first week of sleep training at night, the naps became more challenging. She wanted us to pick her up out of the crib. We were focused on the night-time plan, so we would often give in to relentless crying and take her on a drive so she would fall asleep. I don’t necessarily regret this decision, but after the second week of night-time training, we also implemented CIO for naps. The first week of nap-time sleep training also had it’s challenges. We maximized CIO to 45 minutes, and she reached that two times. We are now at week 4, and over the last four days she has averaged 5 minutes of light crying before falling asleep for naps, and she is averaging less than 5 minutes of light crying for bed time.

Conclusion

By our daughter’s 10 month mark, it seemed as if co-sleeping or sleep training were the only two options we had. We thought co-sleeping would have been a fairly easy pathway and at least another 6 months of low quality sleep for us and for her. We figured sleep training would at least require a solid three days of torture for everyone involved. If sleep training worked, we were pretty sure it would be worth it, and even if it didn’t, we had to know if it wasn’t a possibility. Sleep training did require several hours of crying over the first week, but from weeks 2-4 there has been significantly less crying than we were used to. After the first week our daughter started to crawl, pull herself up, and balance herself while standing. She has started to interact with us more than ever, she has been more interested in everything around her, and she is a happier girl in general.

Hopefully this outline was helpful. If you have any questions, thoughts, or suggestions please leave a comment!